"Brown, G. (2004). Gender as a factor in the response of the
law-enforcement system to violence against partners. Sexuality and Culture,
8, (3-4), 3-139. (Summarizes partner violence data from the 1999 Canadian
General Social Survey <GSS>. The GSS is based on a representative sample of
25,876 persons. Overall in the 12-month period preceding the survey, an
estimated 3% Canadian women and 2% of Canadian men reported experiencing
violence from their partners. During the 5 year period from 1995-1999, an
estimated 8% of Canadian women and 7% of Canadian men reported violence from
their partners. Reviewed police and legal responses to partner violence in
Edmonton, Canada and concludes that
". . . men who are involved in disputes
with their partners, whether as alleged victims or as alleged offenders or
both, are disadvantaged and treated less favorably than women by the
law-enforcement system at almost every step.")"
"Young women were observed to initiate physical aggression
toward their partners more frequently than were the young men."
"the relative prevalence of frequent physical aggression by women and of injury
and fear for men was surprisingly high.")"